Alash Autonomy

Alash Autonomy
Алаш аутономиясы
Unrecognized state


Оян, Қазақ
Oyan, Qazaq!
Очнись, казах!
Wake up, Kazakh!
Capital Semey
Languages Kazakh
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Republic
Chairman of Alash Orda Alikhan Bukeikhanov
Historical era World War I , Russian Civil War
   Established December 13, 1917
   Disestablished August 26, 1920
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian Turkestan
Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Today part of  Kazakhstan

Alash Autonomy (Kazakh: Алаш аутономиясы Alaş awtonomïyası; Russian: Алашская автономия Alashskaya avtonomiya) was a Kazakh state that existed between December 13, 1917 and August 26, 1920 on, approximately, the territory of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan. The capital city was Semey, then known as "Alash-qala".

Vasile Balabanov was appointed governor and administrator of Kazakhstan (at that time known as Russian Turkestan) in 1905 and continued in that position until 1920. He fled the Russian Red Army in 1920, going to China. China at that time considered him the legitimate governor of Kazakhstan.

The Alash Autonomy of 1917 was in name only. Kazakhstan was controlled by the anti-communist White Army and the appointed administrator, who were in control until the Red Army was able to take over in 1920.

The Alash Autonomy was proclaimed in December 1917. Alash leaders established Alash Orda, a Kazakh government, which was aligned with the White Army and fought against the Bolsheviks. The first legislation of the Alash government of June 11-24, 1918 is the following: "Agreed to invalidate all decrees issued by the Soviet authorities on the territory of the autonomous Alash. Chairman of Alash-Orda: Bokeikhanov, Members: Tynyshpaev, Gabbasov." In 1919, when the White forces were losing, Alash Autonomous government began negotiations with the Bolsheviks. In 1919–20 the Bolsheviks defeated the White Russian forces in the region and occupied Kazakhstan. On August 26, 1920, the Soviet government disbanded the Alash Autonomy, and established the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which in 1925 changed its name to Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and to Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936.

See also


  • Peimani, Hooman. Conflict and Security in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2009, p.124
  • Galick, David. Responding to the Dual Threat to Kazakhness: The Rise of Alash Orda and its Uniquely Kazakh Path, Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies (March 29 2014)

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