Franklin (New Zealand electorate)
Franklin was a rural New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed from 1861 to 1996 during four periods.
The original electorate from 1861 to 1881 included the South Auckland towns of Papatoetoe, Papakura, Pukekohe and Waiuku, and west of Waiuku to the West Coast. When reconstituted in 1890 the northern boundary was north of Papakura, and (with the growth of Auckland) now excluded Papatoetoe.
In December 1887, the House of Representatives voted to reduce its membership from general electorates from 91 to 70. The 1890 electoral redistribution used the same 1886 census data used for the 1887 electoral redistribution. In addition, three-member electorates were introduced in the four main centres. This resulted in a major restructuring of electorates, and Franklin was one of eight electorates to be re-created for the 1890 election.
The 1981 census had shown that the North Island had experienced further population growth, and three additional general seats were created through the 1983 electoral redistribution, bringing the total number of electorates to 95. The South Island had, for the first time, experienced a population loss, but its number of general electorates was fixed at 25 since the 1967 electoral redistribution. More of the South Island population was moving to Christchurch, and two electorates were abolished, while two electorates were recreated. In the North Island, six electorates were newly created, three electorates were recreated (including Franklin), and six electorates were abolished.
The 1987 electoral redistribution took the continued population growth in the North Island into account, and two additional general electorates were created, bringing the total number of electorates to 97. In the South Island, the shift of population to Christchurch had continued. Overall, three electorates were newly created, three electorates were recreated, and four electorates were abolished (including Franklin). All of those electorates were in the North Island. Changes in the South Island were restricted to boundary changes. These changes came into effect with the 1987 election.
The electorate existed from 1861 to 1881 as a two-member electorate, when it was split into the Franklin North and Franklin South electorates.One of the first MP's, Marmaduke Nixon was killed in action in 1864 whilst leading an assault on a Māori village during the Invasion of the Waikato, forcing the 1864 by-election. In 1890 it was reconstituted, to 1978 and then from 1984–87, and 1993–96. From 1978 to 1984 it was renamed the Rangiriri electorate, and from 1987 to 1993 it was renamed the Maramarua electorate but in 1993 it reverted to "Franklin". In 1996 with MMP, the area became part of the Port Waikato electorate.
The single-member electorate was first represented by Ebenezer Hamlin from 1890 to 1893 when he retired. Benjamin Harris defeated the future Prime Minister William Massey in 1893, but the 1896 contest had the opposite outcome. From 1896 to 1925 Franklin was represented by the Reform Party's Massey, known as Farmer Bill, the Prime Minister from 1912 to 1925. Ewen McLennan then held the electorate for one term before he retired, and was replaced by Massey's son Jack Massey.
In 1935 Franklin was won by Arthur Sexton of the Country Party, but he lost the seat in 1938 to Jack Massey, now standing for the National Party. He held the seat until 1957, when he was deselected by the National Party in favour of Alfred E. Allen. Alf Allen held the seat until 1972, when he retired and was replaced by future National minister Bill Birch, who held the seat over the remaining three periods that the seat existed.
Members of Parliament
|1861 election||Robert Graham||Marmaduke Nixon|
|1864 by-election||Theodore Haultain|
|1868 by-election||William Turnbull Swan|
|1871 election||William Thorne Buckland||Archibald Clark|
|1874 by-election||Joseph May|
|1876 election||Hugh Lusk||Ebenezer Hamlin|
|1878 by-election||Richard Hobbs|
|1879 election||Benjamin Harris|
|(Electorate abolished 1881–1890, see Franklin North and Franklin South)|
|1890 election||Ebenezer Hamlin|
|1893 election||Benjamin Harris|
|1896 election||William Massey|
|1925 by-election||Ewen McLennan|
|1928 election||Jack Massey|
|1935 election||Arthur Sexton|
|1938 election||Jack Massey|
|1957 election||Alfred E. Allen|
|1972 election||Bill Birch|
|(Electorate abolished 1978–1984, see Rangiriri)|
|1984 election||Bill Birch|
|(Electorate abolished 1987–1993, see Maramarua)|
|1993 election||Bill Birch|
|(Electorate abolished 1996)|
|Country Party||Arthur Sexton||1,564||14.77||-36.62|
|Country Party||Arthur Sexton||4,803||51.39|
|Democrat||B C Fyers||368||3.93|
|Country Party||Harry Oswald Mellsop||2,511||32.43|
|Independent||John Humphries Edwards||264||3.41|
- Edwards was chosen by the local committee of the Labour Party, but was not endorsed by the national executive
|Labour||John Sommerville Montgomerie||2,245||27.04|
|Liberal||W Findlay Wilson||1,278||34.21|
|Independent Liberal||Benjamin Harris||680||48.15|
- McRobie 1989, pp. 54ff.
- McRobie 1989, pp. 123f.
- McRobie 1989, pp. 111, 123.
- McRobie 1989, pp. 119–124.
- McRobie 1989, pp. 127f.
- McRobie 1989, pp. 123–128.
- McRobie 1989, p. 127.
- Barber, Laurie. "Nixon, Marmaduke George". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
- Wilson 1985, p. 202.
- Gustafson, Barry. "Massey, William Ferguson". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- Wilson 1985, pp. 217, 219.
- Wilson 1985, p. 172.
- Wilson 1985, p. 184.
- "The General Election, 1938". National Library. 1939. p. 2. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald. LXXV (23181). 29 October 1938. p. 25. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- The New Zealand Official Year-Book. Government Printer. 1936. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 2. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald. LXVIII (21053). 11 December 1931. p. 22. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Election Notes". The New Zealand Herald. LXVIII (21042). 28 November 1931. p. 17. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Reform Triumph". The Northern Advocate. 18 June 1925. p. 5. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 2. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. p. 1. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "The General Election". Otago Daily Times. 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.
- Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.
- 1870 description of boundaries
- 1902 map
- 1911 map (page 29) and description of boundaries
- 1917 map (page 27) and description of boundaries
- 1937 map
- 1946 map