Immigration to Europe
Immigration to Europe has a long history, but increased substantially in the later 20th century. Especially Western European countries saw a high growth in immigration after World War II and many European nations today (particularly those of the EU-15) have sizeable immigrant populations, both of European and non-European origin. In contemporary globalization, migrations to Europe have accelerated in speed and scale. Over the last decades, there has been an increase in negative attitudes towards immigration, and many studies have emphasized marked differences in the strength of antiimmigrant attitudes among European countries.
Beginning in 2004, the European Union has granted EU citizens a freedom of movement and residence within the EU, and the term "immigrant" has since mostly been used to refer to extracomunitarian (i.e. non-EU) citizens. Between 2010 and 2013, around 1.4 million non-EU nationals, excluding asylum seekers and refugees, immigrated into the EU each year using regular means, with a slight decrease since 2010.
Early historical migration into or within Europe has mostly taken the form of military invasion, but there have been exceptions; this concerns notably population movements within the Roman Empire under the Pax Romana; the Jewish diaspora in Europe was the result of the First Jewish–Roman War of AD 66–73.
With the collapse of the Roman Empire, migration was again mostly coupled with warlike invasion, not least during the so-called Migration period (Germanic migrations), the Slavic migrations, the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, the Islamic conquests and the Turkic expansion into Eastern Europe (Kipchaks, Tatars, Cumans). The Ottomans once again established a multi-ethnic imperial structure across Western Asia and Southeastern Europe, but Turkification in Southeastern Europe was due more to cultural assimilation than to mass immigration. In the late medieval period, the Romani people migrated into Europe both via Anatolia and the Maghreb.
There were substantial population movements within Europe throughout the Early Modern period, mostly in the context of the Reformation and the European wars of religion, and again as a result of World War II.
Until the late 1960s and 1970s, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom were primarily sources of emigration, sending large numbers of emigrants to the Americas and Australia. A number also went to other European countries (notably France, Switzerland, Germany and Belgium). As living standards in these countries have risen, the trend has reversed and they were a magnet for immigration (most notably from Morocco, Somalia, Egypt to Italy and Greece; from Morocco, Algeria and Latin America to Spain and Portugal; and from Ireland, India, Pakistan, Germany, the United States, Bangladesh, and Jamaica to the United Kingdom).
Migration within Europe after the 1985 Schengen Agreement
As a result of the 1985 Schengen Agreement, there is free travel within Europe. Citizens of European Union member states and their families have the right to live and work anywhere within the EU because of EU citizenship but citizens of non-EU or non-EEA states do not have those rights unless they possess the EU Long Term Residence Permit or are family members of EU citizens. Nevertheless, all holders of valid residence permits of a Schengen State have the unrestricted right to travel within the Schengen Area for tourist purposes only, and for up to three months. This is seen by many experts as an encouragement to work illegally within the Schengen zone.
A large proportion of immigrants in western European states have come from former eastern bloc states in the 1990s, especially in Spain, Greece, Germany, Italy, Portugal and the United Kingdom. There are frequently specific migration patterns, with geography, language and culture playing a role. For example, there are large numbers of Poles who have moved to the United Kingdom and Ireland, while Romanians and also Bulgarians have chosen Spain and Italy. In fact, with the earlier of the two recent enlargements of the EU, although most countries restricted free movement by nationals of the acceding countries, the United Kingdom did not restricted for the 2004 enlargement of the European Union and received Polish, Latvian and other citizens of the new EU states. Spain was not restricted for the 2007 enlargement of the European Union and received many Romanians and Bulgarians as well other citizens of the new EU states.
Many of these Polish immigrants to UK have since returned to Poland, after the serious economic crisis in the UK. Nevertheless, free movement of EU nationals is now an important aspect of migration within the EU, since there are now 28 member states, and has resulted in serious political tensions between Italy and Romania, since Italy has expressed the intention of restricting free movement of EU nationals (contrary to Treaty obligations and the clear jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice).
Another migration trend has been that of Northern Europeans moving toward Southern Europe. Citizens from the European Union make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain, coming chiefly from the United Kingdom and Germany, but also from Italy, France, Portugal, The Netherlands, Belgium, etc. British authorities estimate that the population of UK citizens living in Spain is much larger than Spanish official figures suggest, establishing them at about 1,000,000, with 800,000 being permanent residents. According to the Financial Times, Spain is the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering to move from their own country and seek jobs elsewhere in the EU.
Immigration from outside Europe since the 1980s
Some scholars claim that the increase in immigration flows from the 1980s is due to global inequalities between poor and rich countries.
In May 2009 the European Commission adopted the EU Blue Card to allow skilled third-country workers to work in any of the participating EU member states.
Case study: Migration to the Nordic countries in 2000-2015
Most European countries are becoming more multicultural due to increased immigration. Since 2000 the immigrant populations of many northern and western European countries have more than doubled. However immigration policies vary from country to country. The Nordic countries serve as an example: while Norway and Sweden have a generous immigration policy, Denmark and Finland have restricted immigration. The latter have experienced an increase in their immigrant populations between 2000 and 2015 (4.5 percentage points in Denmark and 3.8 in Finland), but this is much less than the drastic relative increase in Norway (9.3) and Sweden (7.0).
The table below shows the percentage of the total population in the Nordic countries that are either (1) immigrants or (2) children of two immigrant parents.
As of 2008, the French national institute of statistics (INSEE) estimated that 5.3 million foreign-born immigrants and 6.5 million direct descendants of immigrants (born in France with at least one immigrant parent) lived in France. This represents a total of 11.8 million, or 19% of the population. In terms of origin, about 5.5 million are European, four million Maghrebi, one million Sub-Saharan African, and 400,000 Turkish. Among the 5.3 million foreign-born immigrants, 38% are from Europe, 30% from Maghreb, 12.5% from Sub-Saharan Africa, 14.2% from Asia and 5.3% from America and Oceania The most significant countries of origin as of 2008 were Algeria (713,000), Morocco (653,000), Portugal (580,000), Italy (317,000), Spain (257,000), Turkey (238,000) and Tunisia (234,000). However, immigration from Asia (especially China, as well as the former French colonies of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos), and from Sub-Saharan Africa (Senegal, Mali, Nigeria and others), is gaining in importance.
The region with the largest proportion of immigrants is the Île-de-France (Greater Paris), where 40% of immigrants live. Other important regions are Rhône-Alpes (Lyon) and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (Marseille).
Among the 802,000 newborns in metropolitan France in 2010, 27.3% had at least one foreign-born parent and about one quarter (23.9%) had at least one parent born outside Europe. Including grandparents; almost 40% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 had at least one foreign-born grandparent. (11% were born in another European country, 16% in Maghreb, and 12% in another region of the world.)
In January 2015 the "immigrant population" in Norway consisted of approximately 805,000 people, including 669,000 foreign-born and 136,000 born in Norway to two immigrant parents. This corresponds to 15.6% of the total population. The cities with the highest share of immigrants are Oslo (32%) and Drammen (27%). The six largest immigrant groups in Norway are Poles, Swedes, Somalians, Lithuanians, Pakistanis and Iraqis.
In the years since 1970, the largest increase in the immigrant population has come from countries in Asia (including Turkey), Africa and South America, increasing from about 3500 in 1970 to about 300,000 in 2011. In the same period, the immigrant population from Nordic countries and Western Europe has increased modestly from around 42,000 to around 130,000.
In 2004 the number of people who became naturalised British citizens rose to a record 140,795 - a 12% increase from the previous year, and a dramatic increase since 2009. Most new citizens came from Asia (40%) or Africa (32%); the largest three countries of origin were India, Pakistan and Bangladesh with Indians making the largest group. In 2005, an estimated 565,000 migrants arrived to live in the United Kingdom for at least a year, primarily from Asia and Africa, while 380,000 people emigrated from the country for a year or more, chiefly to Australia, Spain and the United States.
The total immigrant population of the country is now of 5 million and 73 thousand, about 8.3 percent of the population (2014). Since the expansion of the European Union, the most recent wave of migration has been from surrounding European nations, particularly Eastern Europe, and increasingly Asia, replacing North Africa as the major immigration area. Some 933,000 Romanians are officially registered as living in Italy, replacing Albanians and Moroccans as the largest ethnic minority group, but independent estimates put the actual number of Romanians at double that figure or perhaps even more. Others immigrants from Central-Eastern Europe are Ukrainians (230,000), Polish (110,000), Moldovans (150,000), Macedonians (100,000), Serbs (110,000), Bulgarians (54,000) East German people (41,000), Bosnians (40,000), Russians (39,600), Croatians (25,000), Slovakians (9,000), Hungarians (8,600). (As of 2014, the distribution of foreign born population is largely uneven in Italy: 84.9% of immigrants live in the northern and central parts of the country (the most economically developed areas), while only 15.1% live in the southern half of the peninsula.)
Since 2000, Spain has absorbed around six million immigrants, adding 12% to its population. The total immigrant population of the country now exceeds 5,730,677 (12.2% of the total population). According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 710,000 were Moroccan, another 410,000 were Ecuadorian, 300,000 were Colombian, 230,000 were Bolivian and 150,000 were Chinese; from the EU around 800,000 were Romanian, 370,000 (though estimates place the true figure significantly higher, ranging from 700,000 to more than 1,000,000) were British, 190,000 were German, 170,000 were Italian and 160,000 were Bulgarian. A 2005 regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people that year. By world regions, in 2006 there were around 2,300,000 from the EU-27, 1,600,000 from South America, 1,000,000 from Africa, 300,000 from Asia, 200,000 from Central America & Caribbean, 200,000 from the rest of Europe, while 50,000 from North America and 3,000 from the rest of the world.
Portugal, long a country of emigration, has now become a country of net immigration, from both its former colonies and other sources. By the end of 2003, legal immigrants represented about 4% of the population, and the largest communities were from Cape Verde, Brazil, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, the United Kingdom, Spain, China and Ukraine.
In 2014 the "immigrant population" in Sweden consisted of approximately 2.09 million people, including 1.60 million foreign-born and 489,000 born in Sweden to two immigrant parents. This corresponds to 21.5% of the total population.
Of the major cities Malmö has the largest immigrant population, estimated to be 41.7% in 2014. However, the smaller municipalities Botkyrka (56.2%), Haparanda (55.5%) and Södertälje (49.4%) all have a higher share of immigrants. In the Swedish capital Stockholm 31.1% (in 2014) of the population are either foreign-born or born in Sweden by two foreign-born parents.
Sweden has been transformed from a nation of emigration ending after World War I to a nation of immigration from World War II onwards. In 2009, Sweden had the fourth largest number of asylum applications in the EU and the largest number per capita after Cyprus and Malta. Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland and the five largest foreign born populations in Sweden come from Finland, Yugoslavia, Iraq, Poland and Iran.
Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Finland. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behavior.
At the end of 2010, there were 248,135 foreign born people residing in Finland, which corresponds to 4.6% of the population. Proportionally speaking, Finland has had one of the fastest increases in its foreign-born population between 2000 and 2010 in all of Europe. The majority of immigrants in Finland settle in the Helsinki area, although Tampere, Turku and Kuopio have had their share of immigrants in recent years.
On 1 January 2011 there were almost 229,000 people (11.1%) living in Slovenia with foreign country of birth. At the end of March 2002 when data on the country of birth for total population were for the first and last time collected by a conventional (field) census, the number was almost 170,000 (8.6%). Immigration from abroad, mostly from republics of former Yugoslavia, was the deciding factor for demographic and socioeconomic development of Slovenia in the last fifty years. Also after independence of Slovenia the direction of migration flows between Slovenia and abroad did not change significantly. Migration topics remain closely connected with the territory of former Yugoslavia. Slovenia was and still is the destination country for numerous people from the territory of former Yugoslavia. The share of residents of Slovenia with countries of birth from the territory of former Yugoslavia among all foreign-born residents was 88.9% at the 2002 Census and on 1 January 2011 despite new migration flows from EU Member States and from non-European countries still 86.7%.
- Immigration to Austria
- Immigration to Bulgaria
- Immigration to Denmark
- Immigration to Germany
- Immigration to Greece
- Immigration to the Netherlands
- Immigration to Romania
- Immigration to Switzerland
- Immigration to Belgium
In Denmark, the parliamentary party most strongly associated with anti-immigration policies is the Danish People's Party.
In France, the National Front seeks to limit immigration. Major media, political parties, and a large share of the public believe that anti-immigration sentiment has increased since the country's riots of 2005.
In Germany, the National Democratic Party opposes immigration.
Public anti-immigrant discourse started in Italy in 1985 by the Bettino Craxi government, which in a public speech drew a direct link between the high number of clandestine immigrants and some terrorist incidents. Public discourse by the media hold that the phenomenon of immigration is uncontrollable and of undefined proportions.
In Norway, the only parliamentary party that seeks to limit immigration is the Progress Party. Minor Norwegian parties seeking to limit immigration are the Democrats in Norway, the Christian Unity Party, the Pensioners' Party and the Coastal Party.
A 2015 opinion poll conducted by the Centre for Public Opinion Research (CBOS) found that 14% thought that Poland should let asylum-seekers enter and settle in Poland, 58% thought Poland should let asylum-seekers stay in Poland until they can return to their home country, and 21% thought Poland should not accept asylum-seekers at all. Furthermore, 53% thought Poland should not accept asylum-seekers from the Middle East and North Africa, with only 33% thinking Poland should accept them.
The largest party in Sweden that seeks to reduce immigration are the national conservative Sweden Democrats. In the 2014 election, the party garnered 13% of the vote. In response to the mass immigration of 2015, the Sweden Democrats raised dramatically to 19.9%.
Switzerland has a history of anti-immigration which dates to the early 1970s and the campaigns of James Schwarzenbach. Since the 1990s, the topic has been dominated by the conservative-liberal Swiss People's Party, led by Christoph Blocher.
Anti-immigration sentiment in the United Kingdom has historically focused on African, Afro-Caribbean and especially South Asian migrants, all of whom began to arrive from the Commonwealth of Nations in greater numbers following World War II. Since the fall of the Soviet Union and the enlargement of the European Union, the increased movement of people out of countries such as Poland, Romania and Lithuania has shifted much of this attention towards migrants from Eastern Europe. While working-class migrants tend to be the focus of populist anti-immigration sentiment, there is also some discontent about Russian, Chinese, Singaporese and Gulf Arab multimillionaires resident in the UK, particularly in London and South East England. These residents often invest in property and business, and are perceived as living extravagant "jet-set" lifestyles marked by conspicuous consumption while simultaneously taking advantage of tax loopholes connected to non-dom status.
Policies of reduced immigration, particularly from the European Union, are central to the manifestos of parties such as the UK Independence Party. Such policies have also been discussed by some members of the largest parties in Parliament, most significantly the Conservatives.
Statistic data on immigrant populations
By host country
|Country||Number of immigrants||Percentage of|
total number of
in the world
| Immigrants as|
|Republic of Macedonia||139,751||0.1||6.6|
|Isle of Man||44,688||0.1||52.0|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||23,197||0.1||0.6|
2010 data for European Union
In 2010, 47.3 million people lived in the EU, who were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and The Netherlands (1.4 million).
|Country||Total population (millions)||Total Foreign-born (millions)||%||Born in other EU state (millions)||%||Born in a non-EU state (millions)||%|
According to the list of countries by immigrant population, based on the United Nations report World Population Policies 2005. The European countries that have the highest net foreign populations are:
The European countries with the highest proportion or percentage of non-native residents are small nations or microstates. Andorra is the country in Europe with the highest percentage of immigrants, 77% of the country's 82,000 inhabitants. Monaco is the second with the highest percentage of immigrants, they make up 70% of the total population of 32,000; and Luxembourg is the third, immigrants are 37% of the total of 480,000; in Liechtenstein they are 35% of the 34,000 people; and in San Marino they comprise 32% of the country's population of 29,000.
Countries in which immigrants form between 25% and 10% of the population are: Switzerland (23%), Latvia (19%), Estonia (15%), Austria (15%), Croatia (15%), Ukraine (14.7%), Cyprus (14.3%), Ireland (14%), Moldova (13%), Germany (12.3%), Sweden (12.3%), Belarus (12%), Slovenia (11.1%), Spain (10.8%, 12.2% in 2010), France (10.2%), and the Netherlands (10%). The United Kingdom (9%), Greece (8.6%), Russia (8.5%), Iceland (7.6%), Norway (7.4%), Portugal (7.2%), Denmark (7.1%), Belgium (6.9%) and the Czech Republic (6.7%), each have a proportion of immigrants between 10% and 5% of the total population.
The European countries with the smallest proportion of immigrants as follows are: Finland (4.6% in 2012), Italy (4.3%, 8.3% in 2014), Albania (2%), Poland (2%), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1%), Bulgaria (1%) and Romania (0.5%).
Eurostat data reported in 2006 that some EU member states as receiving "large-scale" immigration. The EU in 2005 had an overall net gain from international migration of 1.8 million people, which accounted for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth that year. In 2004, a total of 140,033 people immigrated to France. Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from elsewhere in Europe. In 2005, the total number of immigrants fell slightly, to 135,890.
This is a breakdown by major area of origin of the 72.4 million migrants residing in Europe (out of a population of 742 million) at mid-2013, based on the United Nations report Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2013 Revision.
|Area of origin||Number of immigrants |
to Europe (millions)
|Percentage of total |
number of immigrants
|Latin America and the Caribbean||4.5||6|
Approximate populations of non-European origin in Europe (about 20 - 30+ millions, or 3 - 4% (depending on the definition of non-European origin), out of a total population of approx. 831 million):
- Turks (including Turks from Turkey and Northern Cyprus): approx. 9 million (this estimate does not include the 10 million Turks within the European portion of Turkey); of whom about 4 million in Germany and the rest in France, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Italy, Macedonia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Austria, Greece, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland and Belgium. (see Turks in Europe)
- Arabs (including North African and Middle Eastern Arabs): approx. 5 million; mostly in France, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden, Spain, Norway, Denmark, Switzerland, Greece and Russia. (see Arabs in Europe) Many Arabs in Europe are Lebanese and Syrian.
- Black Africans (including Afro-Caribbeans and others by descent): approx. 5 million; mostly in France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Spain, The Netherlands and Portugal. (in Spain and Portugal Afro-Caribbean and Afro-Latin American are included in Latin Americans)
- Indians: approx. 2.5 million; mostly in the United Kingdom, Italy, Portugal, The Netherlands and Ireland.
- Tamils: approx. 130,000 in the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark.
- Pakistanis: approx. 1.1 million in the United Kingdom, but also 60,000 in Italy, Spain, and Norway.
- Bengali: approx. 600,000 mostly in United Kingdom, but also 85,000 in Italy, 35,000 in France, Spain, Sweden and Greece.
- Latin Americans (includes Afro-Latin Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Native Americans, White Latin Americans, miscegenation, etc.): approx. 2.2 million; mostly in Spain (c. 1.8 million) but also in Italy, Portugal, the United Kingdom and some in Germany.
- Armenians: approx. 2 million; mostly in France, but also in Russia, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Ukraine and Italy.
- Berbers: approx. 2 million; mostly in France, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium and Spain.
- Kurds: approx. 2 million; mostly in Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, United Kingdom and France.
- Chinese: approx. 1 million; mostly in Italy, France, the United Kingdom, Spain, The Netherlands and Russia.
- Filipinos: approx. 900,000; mostly in the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Austria and Norway.
- Vietnamese: approx. 300,000; mostly in France, Germany, Italy, the Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and United Kingdom.
- Iranians: approx. 250,000; mostly in the United Kingdom, Italy, France, Germany, Spain, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark.
- Somalis: approx. 200,000; mostly in the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark.
- Assyrians/Chaldeans/Syriacs: approx. 200,000; mostly in Sweden, Germany, Russia and The Netherlands.
- Japanese: approx. 100,000; mostly in the United Kingdom and Germany.
Gallup has published a study estimating potential migrants in 2010. The study estimated that 700 million adults worldwide would prefer to migrate to another country. Potential migrants were asked for their country of preference if they were given free choice.
The total number of potential migrants to the European Union is estimated at 200 million, comparable to the number for North America (USA and Canada). In addition, an estimated 40 million potential migrants within the EU desire to move to another country within the EU, giving the EU the highest intra-regional potential migration rate.
The study estimates that about 500 million out of the 700 million potential migrants would be attracted by fifteen countries (the United States being most popular, attracting 166 million). Apart from the United States and Canada, the top desired target countries were predominantly European: the United Kingdom (46 million), France (39 million), Spain (31 million), Germany (26 million).
The study also compared the number of potential migrants to their desired destination's population, resulting in a Net Migration Index expressing potential population growth. This list is headed by Singapore, which would experience population growth by +219%. Among European countries, Switzerland would experience the highest growth, by +150%, followed by Sweden (+78%), Spain (+74%), Ireland (+66%), the United Kingdom (+62%) and France (+60%). The European countries with highest potential population loss are Kosovo and Macedonia, with -28% each.
- Demographics of Europe
- Emigration from Europe
- Migration from Latin America to Europe
- European migrant crisis
- List of countries by immigrant population
- List of countries by foreign-born population
- List of sovereign states and dependent territories by fertility rate
- Marozzi, Marco (2015). "Construction, Robustness Assessment and Application of an Index of Perceived Level of Socio-economic Threat from Immigrants: A Study of 47 European Countries and Regions". Social Indicators Research. doi:10.1007/s11205-015-1037-z.
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- Calefato (1994) pp.80-1 quote:
La presenza di questi immigrati in Europa non e' semplicemente finalizzata alla ricerca di un lavoro, (per lo piu' come camerieri, venditori ambulanti, braccianti stagionali, ecc.). Le migrazioni del nostro tempo pongono con forza una "domanda di accoglienza" (v. Ponzio 1993), cioe' una domanda non contenibile nel mercato e nell'"integrazione", che evidenzia, anche inconsapevolmente, le divaricazioni crescenti sul nostro pianeta tra poverta' e ricchezza.
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- SSB (Norwegian Statistics): http://www.ssb.no/en/innvbef and http://www.ssb.no/en/befolkning/statistikker/innvbef/aar/2015-03-04 and https://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/sa66/sa66.pdf and http://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/sa119/kap2.pdf
- Statistics Denmark: http://www.statistikbanken.dk/10024
- Statistics Iceland: http://px.hagstofa.is/pxen/pxweb/en/Ibuar/Ibuar__mannfjoldi__3_bakgrunnur__Uppruni/MAN43000.px/table/tableViewLayout1/?rxid=f9a194b3-0f20-4075-88cf-6fb4c2b9f33b and http://www.statice.is/Statistics/Population/Citizenship-and-country-of-birth
- Statistics Finland: http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/sv/StatFin/StatFin__vrm__vaerak/045_vaerak_tau_200_sv.px/table/tableViewLayout1/?rxid=92056ba2-8a01-4178-9305-cd4db0198902 and http://www.stat.fi/hae_en?word=immigration&sort=inv_aika and http://www.stat.fi/til/vaerak/2015/01/vaerak_2015_01_2016-09-23_tie_001_en.html
- Être né en France d’un parent immigré, Insee Première, n°1287, mars 2010, Catherine Borrel et Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee
- Répartition des immigrés par pays de naissance 2008, Insee, October 2011
- Naissances selon le pays de naissance des parents 2010, Insee, septembre 2011
- Parents born in overseas territories are considered to have been born in France.
- Les immigrés, les descendants d'immigrés et leurs enfants, Pascale Breuil-Genier, Catherine Borrel, Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee 2011
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- Non-EU citizens legally residing Jan 2014
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- Immigrants Fuel Europe's Civilization Clash
- Spanish youth clash with immigrant gangs
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- Guild and Minderhoud (2006) p.173
- Dal Lago p.122
- Ministero degli Interni (1985) Relazione al Parlamento sull'attività delle Forze di Polizia e sullo stato dell'ordine e della sicurezza pubblíca nel territorio nazionale
- Palidda, S. (1996) Verso il fascismo democratico? Note su emigrazione, immigrazione e società dominanti', Aut Aut 275: 143–68
- Marazziti and Riccardi (2005) pp.40-1 quote:
La "vulgata" difunde la idea de que el fenomeno es de dimensiones incontrolables e indefinibles, y se llega a formular la afirmacion comun de que hay tantos, o mas, extranjeros clandestinos como extranjeros visibles y regulares.
[...] la inmigracion [...] ha entrado en el imaginario de los miedos o de las extrañezas. Progresivamente, el lenguaje que se utilizara sera el de orden publico, de las varias "tolerancia cero".
[...] Se evocan banalmente los choques de civilizaciones para dar dignidad al prejuicio. El mecanismo es antiguo, pero la sociedades no estan vacunadas contra ellos.
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